The Homeland Security Act of 2002 created the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to safeguard
the United States against terrorism. The department brought together 22 different federal agencies, each
with a role to: prevent terrorism and enhance security, especially from a chemical, biological,
radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosive (CBRNE) attack; manage borders; administer immigration
laws; secure cyberspace; and ensure disaster resilience. That is just the federal part of the equation.
The first DHS Secretary, Governor Thomas Ridge, envisioned an enterprise where state, local, tribal, and
territorial governments were also an integral part of that mission. What is not clearly stated is the
role that nongovernmental organizations play. This would include industry, think tanks, and media.