Those in law enforcement can attest to the continuous and constant changes in the profession. In the 1960s, it was inconceivable to have predicted where time and technology would transport the country by 2017. The media provides instantaneous news via social media, so a small demonstration can be multiplied in an instant with a simple tweet. Law enforcement must adapt.
Closed-circuit television cameras are almost everywhere, along with cellphone video, and now, body-worn cameras. As both society and law enforcement continue to advance, one thing has become abundantly clear. Law enforcement officers are operating in a new environment, and there is a requirement for both tactics and leadership to be flexible and adaptable.
Civil Protection – 1960s to Present
The management of demonstrations is a notable example of this transformation. Managing civil unrest and protests is perhaps the most vivid proof to the change in surroundings and to the necessary adjustment in response style. The law enforcement response during the 1968 riots in cities across the country was focused on a militaristic control of the environment. There was little emphasis on public relations concerns. Terms such as “negotiated management” were unheard of in the arena of protests during that era.
Before the unrest in Baltimore in 2015, the city’s protests were fully handled by operational commanders. To the credit of those commanders, they regularly attempted to communicate and often negotiate with protesters before taking enforcement action. The unrest taught Baltimore law enforcement valuable lessons in communication. In some instances, it taught that it was necessary to separate the enforcement arm of policing from the community-collaboration function.
The Baltimore Police Department, like many others, has managed a plethora of demonstrations since the death of Trayvon Martin in February 2012. In the beginning, the agency managed these protests with primitive planning tactics and sincere optimism that protesters would exhibit favorable conduct. The department’s experience consisted of basic crowd control concepts, on-the-job training and adjustments, and some luck. Over time, skills developed based on experience, and officers networked with law enforcement peers to incorporate other best practices. Skills developed from repetition and lessons learned from previous experiences.
Lessons Learned in Public Relations
Now, the Baltimore Police Department has established best practices of its own, with an artful balance between community engagement and enforcement. Sometimes this balance becomes unsteadied, and officers struggle to not overreact. However, the agency continues to learn and evolve with each event.
It is critical to recognize the importance of an image or a visual during these protests and public events. For example, a single photograph of a police officer over-equipped in gear or of a publicly perceived overrepresentation of visible officers for the context of the situation could be misinterpreted by many. Commanders must take care in selecting the gear worn by visible personnel during events. Despite considering this, there were over 165 injuries of police officers during the unrest in Baltimore. That should not happen to officers anywhere, ever again. Agencies have a responsibility to keep their officers safe. The skillset lies in balancing fears and the need to act appropriately, while controlling the urge to overreact.
Public information officers understand the importance that communication plays in terms of public relations. One of the critiques regarding Baltimore’s response during and following the unrest led to the development of a Joint Information Center (JIC), which provides the ability for the agency to rapidly disseminate information, diffuse rumors, and clarify facts. The current speed of instantaneous communication and technology makes it incredibly important for the agency’s swiftness of information sharing to match that of the rest of society.
As law enforcement agencies continue to move forward, many aspects in law enforcement will continue to change. Technological advances dictate the need for new computers, radios, software programs, and other related equipment. Society demands a different response from law enforcement than it required during the 1960s. Agencies must focus on image management, public relations, and the impression that appearance and actions make on the general public.
Modern law enforcement agencies need flexible and adaptable police leaders. Those who are still committed to “doing it like we’ve always done it” are rapidly becoming dinosaurs in a constantly evolving profession. The same is true for those managing civil unrest or protests. This new environment requires flexible and forward-thinking individuals to continue to transform with the times.
Successful public relations are a critical piece to be managed during protests or civil unrest. After an incident ends, public relations damage can take years to rebuild, and public trust can take even longer to restore. The challenge lies in handling incidents appropriately, without compromising the safety of citizens or police officers. Therefore, law enforcement officers must balance the priority of public image while also protecting lives and property. There is a space between public relations and public safety. In this zone lies the balance between the extremes that all must strive to maintain.
The author’s father was a police officer during the 1968 Baltimore City riots. When the author entered the law enforcement profession in 1997, after decades of listening to her father’s stories of his days on the street, she quickly learned that she was operating in a new generation of policing, and her tactics were quite different from the ones utilized by her father in the 1960s.